Anyone found leaving litter – which will include items such as cigarette ends, crisp packets or banana skins – will now be facing on the spot fines of £80, up from the previous £50.
Fly tippers who illegally dispose of items such as washing machines and fridges face a £200 fine.
Two-thirds of people in Scotland who responded to consultations on littering said that stiffer penalties were required to deal with the issue that costs the country £78million each year.
Councillor John Cowe, chair of Moray Council’s economic development and infrastructure services committee, said: “Litter in our environment remains a chronic problem and one that can be so easily tackled – either bin litter or take it home when no bin is available. Scotland is a beautiful country and we all have a responsibility to keep it clean and litter-free.
“Litter ruins the look of our environment and is harmful to our communities and coastlines. It can be bad for business and tourism by giving people the impression that an area is rundown and dirty.
“I strongly believe that issuing penalties can help to improve our local environment. If we all do the right thing we can start to make a difference and enjoy cleaner, safer communities.”
The new penalties are the result of an update to the Environmental Protection Act 1990 which gives powers to local authorities to issue fixed penalty notices.